## NZC Level 1

**S1-1 Conduct investigations using the statistical enquiry cycle:**

- posing and answering questions
- gathering, sorting and counting, and displaying category data
- discussing the results.

## NZC Level 2

**S2-1 Conduct investigations using the statistical enquiry cycle:**

- posing and answering questions
- gathering, sorting, and displaying category and whole-number data
- communicating findings based on the data.

## NZC Level 3

**S3-1 Conduct investigations using the statistical enquiry cycle:**

- gathering, sorting, and displaying multivariate category and whole-number data and simple time-series data to answer questions
- identifying patterns and trends in context, within and between data sets
- communicating findings, using data displays

## NZC Level 4

**S4-1 Plan and conduct investigations using the statistical enquiry cycle:**

- determining appropriate variables and data collection methods
- gathering, sorting, and displaying multivariate category, measurement, and time-series data to detect patterns, variations, relationships, and trends
- comparing distributions visually
- communicating findings, using appropriate displays

## NZC Level 5

**S5-1 Plan and conduct surveys and experiments using the statistical enquiry cycle:**

- determining appropriate variables and measures
- considering sources of variation
- gathering and cleaning data
- using multiple displays, and re-categorising data to find patterns, variations, relationships, and trends in multivariate data sets
- comparing sample distributions visually, using measures of centre, spread, and proportion
- presenting a report of findings

## NZC Level 6

**S6-1 Plan and conduct investigations using the statistical enquiry cycle:**

- justifying the variables and measures used
- managing sources of variation, including through the use of random sampling
- identifying and communicating features in context (trends, relationships between variables, and differences within and between distributions), using multiple displays
- making informal inferences about populations from sample data
- justifying findings, using displays and measures

## NZC Level 7

**S7-1 Carry out investigations of phenomena, using the statistical enquiry cycle:**

- conducting surveys that require random sampling techniques, conducting experiments, and using existing data sets
- evaluating the choice of measures for variables and the sampling and data collection methods used
- using relevant contextual knowledge, exploratory data analysis, and statistical inference

**S7-2 Make inferences from surveys and experiments:**

- making informal predictions, interpolations, and extrapolations
- using sample statistics to make point estimates of population parameters
- recognising the effect of sample size on the variability of an estimate.

## NZC Level 8

**S8-1 Carry out investigations of phenomena, using the statistical enquiry cycle:**

- conducting experiments using experimental design principles, conducting surveys, and using existing data sets
- finding, using, and assessing appropriate models (including linear regression for bivariate data and additive models for time-series data), seeking explanations, and making predictions
- using informed contextual knowledge, exploratory data analysis, and statistical inference
- communicating findings and evaluating all stages of the cycle

**S8-2 Make inferences from surveys and experiments:**

- determining estimates and confidence intervals for means, proportions, and differences, recognising the relevance of the central limit theorem
- using methods such as resampling or randomisation to assess the strength of evidence