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# Key Ideas: Statistical Literacy

## NZC Level 1

The key idea of statistical literacy at NZC Level 1 is reasoning from data.

At Level 1 students are learning to interpret and discuss statements made by others in their classroom about statistical investigations and probability activities. Students together will look at simple data displays made by others or made together as a class either from survey data or probability outcomes data. Students are listening to one another’s interpretation of statistical investigations or probability activities that they have undertaken, saying what they see and seeing if others have the same ideas.

Students are starting to reason from data.

This key idea links to the key idea of statistical investigations at NZC Level 1 and the key idea of probability at NZC Level 1.

This key idea is extended in the key idea of statistical literacy at NZC Level 2 where students are learning to make arguments based on their data.

## NZC Level 2

The key idea of statistical literacy at Level 2 is arguing from the data.

At Level 2 students are learning to confirm or refute whether the statements made by others about data displays from statistical investigations and probability activities are consistent with the display. Students should support their decisions (confirm or refute) with data based reasons, not personal experience reasons.

This key idea develops from the key idea of statistical literacy at NZC Level 1 where students can make and discuss statements relating to data.

This key idea links to the key idea of statistical investigations at NZC Level 2 and the key idea of probability at NZC Level 2.

This key idea is extended in the key idea of statistical literacy at NZC Level 3 where students are learning to be savvy consumers of data.

## NZC Level 3

The key idea of statistical literacy at Level 3 is being a savvy consumer of data.

At Level 3 students are using their knowledge about different types of displays or different ways of representing data to decide if the one used is effective in presenting the main findings from a statistical investigation or a probability activity. They are building on the key idea from statistical literacy Level 2 where they are starting to reason from data.

Students are deciding if the “display” is suitable for the intended audience, can people clearly understand what the “display” is trying to say? Displays include things such as tables, graphs, tree diagrams, calculations, and probabilities. They are exploring computer/web-based data visualisations including static and dynamic images.

This key idea develops from the key idea of statistical literacy at NZC Level 2 where students can make arguments relating to data.

This key idea links to the key idea of statistical investigations at NZC Level 3 and the key idea of probability at NZC Level 3.

This key idea is extended in the key idea of statistical literacy at NZC Level 4 where students are learning to think beyond the data presented.

## NZC Level 4

The key idea of statistical literacy at NZC Level 4 is thinking beyond the data presented.

At level four the focus of the evaluation expands from “displays” (key idea at level 3) to statements made by others about their findings. They should be looking for statistically sound statements based on the data presented in the findings and suggesting alternative correct wording when this isn’t the case.

Students should be asking “what if” and “why” questions about other students’ findings.

Students should be thinking whether there are alternative findings from the data, or if there are other relevant variables that could be considered other than what was reported in the findings of other students.

This key idea develops from the key idea of statistical literacy at NZC Level 3 where students can make savvy judgements about the appropriateness of ways of presenting data.

This key idea links to the key idea of statistical investigations at NZC Level 4 and the key idea of probability at NZC Level 4.

This key idea is extended in the key idea of statistical literacy at NZC Level 5 where students are learning to detect flaws in a whole statistical or probability investigation.

## NZC Level 5

The key idea of statistical literacy at NZC Level 5 is detecting flaws in the investigations of others.

At Level 5 the focus of the evaluation expands from “displays” (key idea at Level 3) and findings (key idea at Level 4) to the whole statistical or probability investigation including data collection methods, choice of measures and validity of findings of others.

Students should be focusing on the planning and data collection phases of statistical and probability investigations. They should be looking at the quality of data, how the measures were defined, how the data was collected, and whether the findings are valid based on the data collection method and the measures used.

By this level students will have evaluated all phases of the PPDAC cycle and will use this knowledge at higher levels when they look at reports from specific fields.

This key idea develops from the key idea of statistical investigations at NZC Level 5 and the key idea of probability at NZC Level 5.

This key idea is extended in the key idea of statistical literacy at NZC Level 6 where students are learning to be savvy consumers of data.

## NZC Level 6

The key idea of statistical literacy at NZC Level 6 is being a data savvy citizen.

At Level 6 students are using the interpretation and evaluation skills developed through Levels 3-5 and applying these in evaluating media type reports. They are using the Level 6 critical questions to evaluate the media report reflecting all aspects of the PPDAC cycle.

Media type reports includes things such as: advertisements, magazine articles, misleading graphs in the media, school newspaper articles, travel brochures.

This key idea develops from the key idea of statistical literacy at NZC Level 5 where students can find flaws in the investigations of others.

This key idea links to the key idea of statistical investigations at NZC Level 6 and the key idea of probability at NZC Level 6.

This key idea is extended in the key idea of statistical literacy at NZC Level 7 where students are learning to be critical consumers of data at a societal level.

## NZC Level 7

The key idea of statistical literacy at NZC Level 7 is being a critical consumer of data at a societal level.

At Level 7 students are working with a variety of statistically based reports. The types of reports have become more specialised in terms of the statistics and/or probability presented in them. Things like risk, relative risk, sampling and non-sampling errors need to be present in these reports. Students should be using the Level 7 critical questions as they evaluate these reports.

Students should be linking the ideas for statistical literacy with what they have done in statistical investigations and probability at Level 7. Polls and surveys are considered at this level leading to experiments and observational studies in level eight.

This key idea develops from the key idea of statistical literacy at NZC Level 6 where students can interpret media type data reports.

This key idea links to the key idea of statistical investigations at NZC Level 7 and the key idea of probability at NZC Level 7.

This key idea is extended in the key idea of statistical literacy at NZC Level 8 where students are learning to be knowledgeable consumers in a data rich society.

## NZC Level 8

The key idea of statistical literacy at NZC Level 8 is becoming a knowledgeable consumer in a data rich society.

At level eight students are working with a wider and more sophisticated range of reports, building on the work at level seven and including critiquing causal-relationships claims and interpreting margins of error. The range of reports includes polls, surveys, experiments and observational studies. Reports can be from a variety of sources including media, journal, and government reports.

This key idea links to the key idea of statistical investigations at NZC Level 8 and the key idea of probability at NZC Level 8.

This key idea develops from the key idea of statistical literacy at NZC Level 7 where students can work with data from a variety of statistically based reports.

Source: http://www.nzmaths.co.nz/key-mathematical-ideas