This standard is derived from Achievement Objective S7.4, Investigate situations that involve elements of chance, in particular, calculating probabilities using such tools as simulations and technology.

Students will show evidence of investigating the situation using each component of the simulation process, integrating statistical and contextual knowledge throughout the process.

Students will design the simulation for the given situation, identify the tools to be used, define what is a trial and the number of trials, determine the data recording methods; carry out the simulation and record the outcomes; select and use appropriate displays and measures; and communicate findings in a conclusion.

In their report the student should show evidence that they have:

- Designed the simulation for the situation given. They have described in detail the tools to be used, what a trial is, the number of trials and the data recording method. They have identified at least two assumptions in designing their simulation
- Conducted the initial simulation, recorded the results and repeated the simulation
- Selected and used appropriate displays and measures.

Students need to communicate their findings clearly, and link their recommendations clearly to the results of the simulation. They have discussed more than one aspect of the recommendation with respect to the context of the simulation in depth.

Note that the simulation can be done using technology (calculator or computer random numbers generated), and a record of the simulation must be set out in table form with labeled headings including the random numbers generated or selected.

## Achievement standard and Guides

- Achievement Standard (AS91268) 2015
- Clarification of the standard (AS91268)
- NZQA Exemplars, assessments and reports
- Key Ideas in Probability
- Senior Secondary Guide AO S7-4
- Glossary of Statistics terms

## Resources for teaching and learning

### Key Resources

**Hands on activities for teaching risk - Lorraine O’Carroll****Sampling variation just keeps turning up everywhere! - Michelle Dalrymple****Teaching research for NCEA L2 and L3 Statistics****Stimulating simulations****A new world of simulations**

### Teacher Preparation

### Classroom Activities

**Hands on activities for teaching risk - Lorraine O’Carroll****Johnnie's Math Page - Probability****Activities for Probability - Pip Arnold****Sampling variation just keeps turning up everywhere! - Michelle Dalrymple****Canterbury Mathematics Association 2014 Statistics Teachers Day****Number of cereal packets****Understanding Probability****A new world of simulations****Benfold's law**