This standard is derived from Achievement Objective S6.1, plan and conduct surveys and experiments using the statistical enquiry cycle. In particular,

- determine and justify appropriate variables
- cleaning data
- using multiple data displays, and re-categorising data to find patterns, variations, in multivariate data sets.
- comparing sample distributions visually, using measures of centre, spread, and proportion
- presenting a report of findings.

It is important for students to consider the context of the data and make an informal inference about the population from the sample data.

## Achievement standard and Guides

- Achievement Standard (AS91035)
- Conditions of Assessment (AS91035) Jan 2016
- Clarification of the standard (AS91035)
- TKI Assessments (AS91035)
- Exemplars (AS91035)
- Moderator’s newsletter comments regarding posing comparative questions July 2012
- Senior Secondary Guide AO S6.1
- Sample to population inference progressions
- Key Ideas in Statistical Investigations
- Glossary of statistics terms

## FAQ

**What possible relevance can statements about the sample be in helping us draw a conclusion about the population?****Can we make the assumption that C@S data is a population?**

## Resources for teaching and learning

### Key Resources

**Sample to population inference - The Path to 3.10****Sampling variation - developing big ideas with sample-to-population inferences****Inference Pain Points - Robyn Headifen****Animations of sampling variation****Guidelines for "How to make the call"****Developing Students' Inferential Reasoning****Karekare College: building conceptions of populations and samples****Introduction to making a call****Driven to Distraction Unit Resource****Te Tūhuratanga Tauanga He Toa Tūhura Koe****Data Detective Poster**

### Teacher Preparation

**STEW, STatistics Education Web****Strategies, tools and prompts to support statistical report writing****Fitting data collection into your Stats lessons****Sample to population inference - The Path to 3.10****Sampling variation - developing big ideas with sample-to-population inferences****Inference Pain Points - Robyn Headifen****Animations of sampling variation****Statistics Education 21st Century NZ****Building inferential reasoning in statistics Part 1****A teachers's guide to informal comparative reasoning****Laying the foundations for inference****Statistical Investigation****How Kids Learn – the statistical enquiry cycle****Using iNZight for the first time****Year 11 Success for all in NCEA Statistical Investigations****Changing Teaching Statistics: Real Data, Real learning****Level 1 Standards Overview****Statistical Concepts Unpacked****Difficulties in learning about sampling variability, and teacher approaches to overcome these****Guidelines for "How to make the call"****The Language of Shape****Training teachers in statistical thinking**

### Classroom Activities

**How far until it stops?****Sampling variation just keeps turning up everywhere!****Classroom Activities for Teaching the NCEA Level 1 and 2 Statistical Enquiry Standards****Statistics Latte****Are you getting enough zzz?****iNZight instructions 3 (Bear hugs 3)****iNZight instructions 1 (Bear Hugs 1)****Sleeping Sheep****Informal statistical inference revisited****Bear hugs 3****Stick Figure Data Cards****Engaging with shape****Making the call Yr 11****Nosey Parker 2****The progression of Inference from Year 9 to AS1.10 and beyond****Ready, steady, go****Armspans****Does Practice make perfect?****Baby Weights****You can't fool me by giving me cheap cola!**

### Datasets

**CensusAtSchool 2009 data subset (15,000 rows)****CensusAtSchool 2007 data subset (15,000 rows)****NZ Incomes 2003 SURF**